VIDEO: Climbing Mount Everest to Support Cancer Research at Fred Hutch

Hi, I’m Luke Timmerman, a biotech journalist.

I’m carrying my 80-pound training backpack, up and down the hills of Seattle, for a reason.

I’m training to climb Mt. Everest, the highest mountain in the world, in 2018.

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Why do this?

Of course, I love the mountains.

But mostly, I’m doing it to support the top-notch research at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. I’m doing it to support my hometown of Seattle. And I’m doing it to support science itself.

As a biotech journalist for 15 years, I’ve had the privilege to meet scientists around the country doing amazing work. I see a cancer revolution happening. Immunotherapies are emerging that harness the power of the immune system to attack cancer cells much like the viruses and bacteria that we fight off every day. Fast DNA sequencers and other sensitive instruments are making it possible to detect cancer earlier than ever before, when it’s most easily treated.

Fred Hutch is at the leading edge of cancer cures. Their pioneering research is helping people with many types of cancer live longer, and lead better lives. We’re seeing just the beginning of what is possible.

We can’t let up — especially during this time of so much thrilling progress.

So I ask you to please give generously to this important cause at a crucial moment in time.

Let’s take this all the way. Donate to the Climb to Fight Cancer at Fred Hutch, and you’ll help scientists push to the top of the mountain – the cure.

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Richard Pops on Fighting the Opioid Painkiller Crisis

Today’s guest on “The Long Run” podcast is Richard Pops.

He’s the chairman and CEO of Alkermes. He is one of the seniormost executives in the biopharma industry, having joined Alkermes as CEO back in 1991. The company is known for its technology around making long-lasting injectable drugs, especially for mass-market chronic diseases like schizophrenia and diabetes.

Richard Pops, chairman and CEO, Alkermes

I’ve known Pops for years, and know him to be a thoughtful and intense conversation partner on many biopharma issues. This particular talk was focused on Alkermes’ effort to fight one of our country’s most troubling public health threats – the opioid addiction crisis. Alkermes markets an injectable drug called naltrexone (Vivitrol).

It’s the only anti-addiction drug approved by the FDA that interferes with opioid receptors. It is designed to block the feeling that makes people get high. The Alkermes drug has an undeniably important role to play.

The drug, however, got off to a slow start in the market since FDA approval in 2010. Alkermes has gone up against an entrenched competitor, buprenorphine (marketed as Suboxone). The competitor is a mild opioid that’s supposed to help wean people off the opioid painkillers prone to abuse like Oxycontin, Vicodin, Percocet or Fentanyl.

The media has started paying more attention to the opioid crisis this year, and Alkermes has taken some heat along the way. The New York Times and NPR published hard-hitting works that wondered whether it is profiteering off this heartbreaking national tragedy, with limited data to support its drug’s efficacy and over-aggressive marketing.

It’s true that Alkermes has made political contributions to officials that had a hand in the 21st Century Cures Act, which put an additional $1 billion of government resources toward combatting the opioid epidemic. Alkermes has also done some consumer-focused advertising about Vivitrol and some targeted marketing outreach to drug courts and criminal justice authorities. It’s also true that Vivitrol sales are growing. They grew by 40 percent in the second quarter, according to Alkermes. The drug had sales of $66 million in the quarter ended June 30.

No one had reported on a head-to-head comparison of the two main anti-addiction treatments (Suboxone and Vivitrol) until recently. Researchers from Norway published work in the Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, from a randomized study of 159 people with opioid dependence, which showed that Vivitrol met its goal of demonstrating that it’s not inferior (roughly equivalent) at helping people reduce their opioid dependence.

It’s fair to ask hard questions about what Alkermes is doing, like with any company. But fundamentally in my view, it has a drug that can be part of the solution, not a driver of the problem.

There are other companies that over-marketed opioid painkillers. There are distributors that kept opioid painkillers flowing like a river through their supply channels, turning a blind eye to the crisis. There are unscrupulous doctors running pill mills. There’s a lot of blame to go around.

No one company, or government agency, can fix this problem singlehandedly. This will take a long-term push from multiple players – doctors, public health authorities, law enforcement, the pharmaceutical industry and more. I hope by listening to this conversation, you’ll gain some appreciation for the complexity.

Now, join me for The Long Run.

(Get new episodes every other week on iTunes or Stitcher.)


BioMarin Book Contains Rare Insight Into the Rare Disease Business

Companies, usually around an anniversary, often pat themselves on the back with airbrushed or whitewashed coffee table books. They chronicle all the wonderful things they’ve done. Maybe there was an amusing screw-up or two along the way. Toss in a few funny photos of the founders in Coke-bottle glasses and fat ties, and call it good.

As for the nitty-gritty of what went down on the jagged path to success? The inside dirt that people want to read, and that people can learn from? Most of that gets left out, swept under the rug, or forgotten.

Biotech as an industry doesn’t do a good job of recording its history in archives, or codifying its knowledge in books that pass down hard-won lessons. There’s always more to look forward to, another thing to discover, right? Sure, but in my view, understanding of the present requires some knowledge of the past. As William Faulkner once wrote “The past is never dead. It’s not even past.”

BioMarin Pharmaceutical CEO Jean-Jacques Bienaime recognized that when Dan Maher, a senior vice president of product development and 13-year veteran of the company, said he was retiring. Knowing that Maher knew a lot of the company’s up-and-down history, and that BioMarin was hiring a lot of people who knew little of the rare disease drug developer’s past, Bienaime had a request: Would you write a company history book?

Maher was energized. After interviewing quite a few former employees, and gathering a lot of source material, veteran biotech journalist Daniel Levine, principal of Levine Media Group, was brought in as a co-author to help tell the story.

The end result, “A Rare Breed: How People and Perseverance Built BioMarin Into One of the World’s Most Innovative Companies” (Available on Amazon, 245 pages, $23.79) is a rare — sorry for the pun — biotech corporate history book worth reading. I read an advance copy, and interviewed the co-authors on stage at an event for BioMarin employees earlier this month. While on campus, I spoke to R&D employees about my book, which made for something of a literary day at the company.

The story relies heavily on more than 150+ interviews with current and former employees, plus a lot of document-digging through quarterly reports, analyst conference calls and more. There’s a judicious use of telling details. The story doesn’t get bogged down with a bunch of irrelevant details. You learn about the humble beginnings, making Aldurazyme for kids with MPS-1 in a Quonset hut near UCLA. There was a church near headquarters known as the “Church of PowerPoint” (good grief), where the company had an all-company meeting at a tense moment. There was the CEO who liked to call himself “The Prince” as in Machiavelli. There were the tensions with Genzyme.

This story moves briskly. As the story goes on, the reader gets a sense for the rare disease business and how it’s different from conventional pharma. The company gets to know a determined and resourceful patient advocate trying to save his son, and begins to see itself serving an almost missionary purpose. When the company strays from that purpose, reaching for a blockbuster drug, things go badly.

Looking at the first 5-10 years of BioMarin, it’s kind of remarkable the company exists today, has six marketed products, and is worth $15 billion. The first CEO developed a drinking problem, which prompted him to miss a lot of work. Factions competed for power. A more authoritarian CEO followed. While he brought some needed focus, he also led the company to a near-death experience.

Maybe the most important lesson from the book is the emphasis on underrated aspects of biotech. Reading the daily news, you’d think clinical trial results and business development deals/M&A are the key value-creating events. Those things are certainly important. But by reading “A Rare Breed” you get a real sense of some behind-the-scenes factors that count. People must be organized to properly tap into their strengths and work as a coherent group. Nobody does this stuff alone.

Manufacturing of complex biologics is another underrated factor. By building up its own ability to make biologics, BioMarin put itself in a position of bargaining strength. Having invested in its own manufacturing meant that BioMarin wouldn’t be forever at the mercy of a big partner or contract manufacturer every time it had a new product to roll out. It wouldn’t be stuck with the short end of the stick.

The latter part of the book left me wanting more. BioMarin and CEO JJ Bienaime gets a free pass for the costly blunder that was the $680 million acquisition of Prosensa, the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy drug developer. Mistakes happen in business development, we are told. Yes, but this could also be seen as a case of a company suffering from hubris, a company that thinks it can take a failed Phase III trial and ram it through the FDA because of some anecdotal successes in kids with DMD.

The book also contains scant discussion of drug pricing — a major issue in rare disease drug development through BioMarin’s entire 20-year history. How did corporate executives arrive at the prices for Aldurazyme, for Naglazyme, for Kuvan, for Brineura? What were the trade-offs considered at the low end and the high end of the ranges considered? What happened with patients who couldn’t get access right away, for whatever reason? There must have been some meaty and revealing material that sheds light on these fundamental tensions. We don’t read about it here.

Maybe that’s too much to ask. This is a company-sponsored book. BioMarin’s CEO didn’t edit any of the book or encourage any self-editing of critical material, Levine says.

To me, that mainly says there’s room for other stories and other storytellers.

Emil Kakkis, a pivotal figure in BioMarin’s history and now the CEO of Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical, told me he hasn’t read the BioMarin book. “My history there stopped in 2009 but the company did finish many of the projects from that time and is doing well.” But he says he is writing his own book about “Saving Ryan.” It’s about a boy named Ryan Dant whose life was changed by being one of the early Aldurazyme patients. Kakkis should be proud, as he worked so long and hard to help the boy and others like him. The Dant family is featured in ‘A Rare Breed,’ but they also could be the protagonists of a family drama, not unlike the Crowley family was in “The Cure” by Geeta Anand.

That kind of family tearjerker may have more mass-market appeal, depending on how it’s told. But there’s not much there for a biotech reader seeking to understand what makes a great company tick, how it got over the hump. There’s a niche for such books.

As the authors of “A Rare Breed” say:

Few companies ever succeed in getting a drug to market. Even fewer are able to achieve that milestone again and again. One of the questions we set out to answer in writing this book is, what accounts for BioMarin’s success? In answering that question, we also wanted to see whether it pointed to ways to continue that success or allow others to replicate it.

Biotech life would be enriched by more efforts like this one. We all work hard and fast, and have our goals. But sometimes with the benefit of hindsight, we can gain wisdom. Then, hopefully, we can pass it on to others who can learn what it takes to really serve people like Ryan Dant.


George Yancopoulos on Threading the Price Needle, and Building a Biotech to Last

George Yancopoulos, the president and chief scientific officer, started his biotech career in 1989 at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals. He’s been there ever since, and has pretty much seen it all.

It was a pleasure to have him as the guest for Episode 3 of The Long Run podcast.

Yancopoulos, in this recording at Regeneron offices in Tarrytown, NY, talks about how he and CEO Len Schleifer built the company together.

George Yancopoulos, president and chief scientist, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals

These two recall the lean years when investors wondered if they were running a science project, or building a real drug company. But Regeneron has broken out as one of biotech’s big successes. The company has developed 6 FDA-approved drugs so far. It’s the third-best performing stock in the S&P 500 over the past decade. Now Regeneron is attempting to the lay the foundation for many more drugs by investing in an ambitious genomics-based discovery center.

Yancopoulos is a forceful personality. You’ll hear his passion for science come through clearly in this conversation.

Before you take a listen, a couple quick plugs. If you like this show, you’ll love my subscription newsletter, Timmerman Report. You can go to timmermanreport.com to subscribe, either as an individual, or with a group discount for your company or university.

If you are interested in sponsorship opportunities for this podcast, this will be a great way to get your company’s name in front of a high-value audience of biotech executives and investors. Send me an email. luke@timmermanreport.com.

The next episode of The Long Run will feature a conversation with Richard Pops, the CEO of Alkermes, about his company’s anti-addiction drug, and the role it can play in combating the opioid painkiller epidemic.

This was a serious conversation, and an uncomfortable one at times. Some in industry have been irresponsible in overmarketing opioid painkillers. There is no silver bullet for this scourge. This will take a long-term push from multiple players – doctors, public health authorities, law enforcement, and the pharmaceutical industry. You won’t want to miss that upcoming conversation with Richard Pops.

Now, join me for The Long Run. Thanks for listening.


The Long Run Ep. 2: Editas Medicine CEO Katrine Bosley

Katrine Bosley, the CEO of Cambridge, Mass.-based Editas Medicine, is the guest for Ep. 2 of “The Long Run” biotech podcast.

Katrine Bosley, CEO, Editas Medicine

Editas, an aspiring leader in the field of CRISPR-based genome editing, is still a very young company. It was founded in 2013 with a license to use technology from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.

Within two years, the CRISPR-Cas9 technology has spread like wildfire because of its cheap, fast, easy, and rather precise way to ‘edit’ out genes across the genome, including single genes implicated in series diseases. In 2015, the company raised a big venture round with big names like Bill Gates, Google Ventures (now GV), Fidelity, T.Rowe Price and more. Six months later, without any drug candidate yet in clinical trials, it went public.

Almost every day, CRISPR is in the news, either for scientific or ethical reasons, or both. Before this episode was recorded, scientists reported successfully using CRISPR to edit a serious gene mutation out of human embryos. In this conversation, Bosley and I spoke about some of the day-to-day management issues around working in such a high-profile field, and some of the additional responsibilities that come with that territory.

In some respects, Editas is a biotech company like any other. It must harness its science, and rally its people around, solving a clear medical problem. It can’t do everything all at once. It must prioritize. But at the same time, it can’t put on blinders and be oblivious to the wider world uses and debates around CRISPR. What happens outside Editas’ walls and is beyond its control can have a big effect on its destiny.

Bosley, a 25-year veteran of biotech, thinks widely and deeply about not just her company but the societal issues as well. Before taking the Editas job, she spoke with George Church, the Harvard University genomics dynamo, extensively about the ethical implications of CRISPR. I think you’ll enjoy hearing her perspective on how an entrepreneur can size up a situation like this, and stay focused on the ultimate prize – a drug that matters.

You can subscribe for free to the regular download on iTunes or Stitcher, and if you leave some positive comments there, it will help others discover the show. And there will be plenty more to discover. The next episode will feature a conversation with George Yancopoulos, the president and CSO of Regeneron. You won’t want to miss that one.

Now, join me for The Long Run.


Socializing After Hours: It’s How Biotech Runs, and Should Be Open to All

Back in the “Mad Men” era, there was the three-martini lunch. When boozy mid-day breaks went out of style, business executives found other ways to grease the wheels of social interaction outside of the office.

Like doing deals on the golf course.

There are many ways to cultivate the social connections that are a crucial step toward forming trusting relationships – the kind that make business go around.

I saw some of how this works in biotech, at close range, when Atlas Venture invited me to participate in Ragnar’s “Reach the Beach.” This is a 200-mile, 24-hour team relay running race that goes from Bretton Woods to Hampton Beach, New Hampshire.

The way it works is each person runs a few miles, and passes the team wristband to another runner. Everybody else hops in a van with teammates to always stay ahead of the next runner and keep the momentum going until it’s your turn to run again. Everybody runs three segments, with a few hours or so of rest in between. You go all through the night, and you have to wear a headlamp and reflective vest for safety when it’s dark. You maybe catch a couple hours sleep outside in a sleeping bag under the stars, usually at a small-town schoolyard. There’s all kinds of hooting and hollering and cow-bell ringing to cheer everyone on to do their best. Runners are constantly changing in and out of sweaty running clothes.

You can imagine the smell.

Everybody has a few stories to tell about a sore this and sore that after pushing themselves physically and mentally. As the endorphins fade, everyone bonds over a fun shared experience in the beer tent. There’s also a charity component, tied to the mileage the team put in during months of training. I think everybody was super-proud to have raised $82,000 through our collective efforts for a dozen good causes.

Personally, I had a great time. My sense was that everyone else did too.

Bruce Booth, a partner at Atlas Venture, puts a lot of time and energy into the event as the ringleader. He surely enjoys running himself, but the event is also about more than just having fun. This is business in motion.

Bruce Booth, partner, Atlas Venture

The Atlas Thursday morning running crew that trains along the Charles River regularly spurs valuable conversations and interactions. One morning in 2015 when then-GSK executive Jason Gardner was running alongside Booth, they hatched the idea that became Magenta Therapeutics. Kevin Bitterman and Jason Rhodes, a couple of recent additions to the Atlas partnership, also forged their connections to the firm through Thursday morning runs, Booth said, and by participating in Reach the Beach.

“Let’s face it, we are in a relationships business,” Booth said afterward. “Building those relationships is hugely valuable. When you have more than one dimension of relationship with folks, it adds more strength.”

This stuff doesn’t just happen by accident. Work goes into creating situations where you get to know people as people in a relaxed, informal setting. Once that’s done, you can reap dividends. It’s easier to pick up the phone or send an email to someone you’ve broken bread with (or shared a Clif bar with at 4 am). Maybe, just maybe, you might meet your future business partner or acquirer.

So how are Reach the Beach team members selected? Carefully. Everyone is very good at what they do. Among the 24 team members in the vans, there were Atlas partners, portfolio company executives, Big Pharma R&D chiefs, the occasional investment banker, and a journalist (me).

Nobody is explicitly pitching their business during the down time during this running event. There were no jerks. If I had to listen to startups pitching me their business, pleading for me to write stories about their companies in a van at 2 a.m., I would not come back. But this was my second year. And by getting to know people as people, I’m probably more inclined to call some of these people for stories I’m working on in the future that are up their alley.

Samantha Truex, an entrepreneur-in-residence at Atlas, described afterward the value she saw after participating for the first time:

Samantha Truex, entrepreneur-in-residence, Atlas Venture

“It helps people develop the relationships that make you that much more likely to pick up the phone and call this person and return that email, if you sat in a van with someone for 26 hours, and lived through a challenge together. You get to know what someone’s integrity and stamina is like, and get to know and like them as people. It’s also just fun.”

Robert Urban, as the global head of Johnson & Johnson Innovation, is surely the kind of guy that every entrepreneur wants to buttonhole and pitch all hours of the day. He wants to enjoy his run, especially the part under the stars at night. That’s not the time to talk about PD-1 inhibitors and various combo regimens.

But when Monday rolls around, if a member of the Reach the Beach team were to call, the wheels of social interaction have already been greased. Want to talk PD-1 inhibitors and combo regimens? Sure.

As Urban put it:

“You get to know people as individuals. It goes much further down the road. It’s about trust. Our relationships are centered on trust. When you have trust founded on a different pretense, it’s more remarkable and durable. No question, that’s an important part of what comes from an event like this.”

Of course, Atlas isn’t the only VC firm trying to cultivate deep and lasting relationships in the innovation community. Several VCs I corresponded with last week said they have similar social-interaction goals in mind.

Alexis Borisy, a Partner at Third Rock Ventures, wrote:

“Our Beyond Great events typically incorporate a social element, as we feel that is a very valuable component to the program. Specific activities have included golf outings, fishing trips, hikes, going to ball games together. The value to these types of activities lie in the relaxed, interactive atmosphere that allows for sharing of experiences, ideas, insights and opinions in a way that a structured environment cannot. The individuals we gather for these types of events are each integral members in our ecosystem.”

Now at this point in the story, you may wonder: What about women? Do they have access?

I did, too.

Women, of course, historically haven’t invited to the three-martini lunches or the golf course. Today they might be invited, but they might not always feel welcome, comfortable, or certain they should attend. It’s still a problem.

The biotech VC business is still very much a male-dominated one. Atlas has an all-male partnership. No big surprise, the runners are mostly men. Women were 4 of the 24 participants (17 percent). The disparity was pretty common across the Reach the Beach event, which is open to anyone. There were 199 men’s teams, 33 women’s teams, and the rest were mixed-gender like the Atlas teams, Booth said.

Booth told me he wants to improve the gender balance, but he also wants to invite prior year runners to foster team loyalty. As a few people naturally drop out each year, “then I invite another 15-20 to fill the 2-3 unfilled team spots that open up and the 8 or so alternates (when we have 2 teams),” he said.

Truex said being one of the few women on the trip didn’t bother her. She said she’s used to being in meetings dominated by men. She agreed to participate once she realized the event wasn’t about speed, and the two Atlas teams hoped to finish at about the same time.

“If I thought the team was trying to win or improve upon its time every year and get better and better, then I’d be intimidated because I’m not one of the really fast runners,” she said.

Speaking for myself as a pretty serious distance runner and occasionally clueless white male, it never occurred to me that competitiveness in running might be a concern. Urban also confessed he heard a woman raise the question of whether it was safe for women to run alone for miles on country roads in the middle of the night. That thought had never crossed our minds.

During some down time at the event, I chatted with Urban about the business importance of events like Reach the Beach, and the extra importance that they be open and inclusive to women. He agreed, and reminded me of Nancy Hopkins’ story.

Hopkins, now a professor emeritus at MIT, fought battles against sexism in an age when it was more vocal and overt than the subtle forms we see today. Even though she was close friends with fellow faculty member Phil Sharp, she was excluded from the founding group at Biogen because “business men wouldn’t work with women.” I’d never met her, but through an introduction from Urban – Reach the Beach social connectivity in action – I was able to get Hopkins’ perspective on how intentional biotech groups would have to be to create situations that are welcoming and inclusive for women.

Nancy Hopkins, professor emeritus, MIT

She sent me her notes from a 2016 talk she gave at Penn about gender bias in biotech startups. It was jarring. When she analyzed the founders, boards, and scientific advisory boards of some of the most high-profile startups to come from Harvard and MIT faculty members in the past 15 years, she saw names of 223 men and 8 women.

As someone who has covered many of these companies over the years, I could have told you they were male-dominated in those areas, but even I was shocked to see how imbalanced things really are. Hopkins elaborated:

Women were excluded for 40 years and they still are. It is very hard to make up for that.

A young woman from HBS came to see me to ask me about this issue several years ago. She went to work in a VC company. She soon left. She said it was a frat house. And that it was entirely who you knew. She was left out, so no way to be part of the action.

As I say, it will take a sledge hammer to fix this problem.

I’d like to hear what more women have to say. We all know these sorts of after-hours events are where business bonds are cemented. They are crucial to the biotech ecosystem. Careers advance this way. After-hours events should be open and welcoming for women, as well as men. Part of it is intentional effort by organizers and part of it is women speaking up to inform the clueless about what doesn’t feel inclusive. (Note to Reach the Beach: when you top your registration website with a quote about the B.O. and the “fuzzy upper lip,” you’re sending a message about who this is for.)

During my time as an “embedded” journalist on this particular run, I saw great team spirit, great connections, great humor. It wasn’t a frat house, not even close. The women I spoke with enjoyed the event as much as the men. But 20 men and 4 women isn’t gender equity. I hope to see more women in the vans next year and the year after that — selected from a larger pool of women in industry. It’s good for people’s careers, and good for the industry.

Team Photo: Reach the Beach 2017. Atlas Venture’s “Runners, Drug & Money.”


The Long Run, Ep. 1: Conversation with Alnylam CEO John Maraganore

Podcast listeners, check it out: Today, I’m starting a new podcast for biotech adventurers like you – executives, investors, scientists.

It’s called The Long Run. Here’s the gist:

Antarctic explorer Ernest Shackleton, if he were alive, would appreciate biotech. Today’s scientific entrepreneurs must be ready for the “hazardous journey, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return doubtful, honor and recognition in case of success.” Today, the men and women who strive to apply science for the betterment of human health have a historic opportunity. They need stamina, and resilience, to achieve something meaningful. Biotech’s relationship with the society that sustains it has never been more tenuous.

This show will provide a forum for thoughtful conversations with biotech leaders, typically between 45-60 minutes, airing every other week.

John Maraganore, CEO, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals.

The debut episode (click here) features John Maraganore, the CEO of Alnylam Pharmaceuticals and the chairman of the Biotechnology Innovation Organization. We covered some of Alnylam’s 15-year history, making the transition to a commercial enterprise on the cusp of long-awaited Phase III clinical trial data, and the industry’s ongoing problem with drug pricing.


Like all podcasts, this show is being made free to all listeners – no TR subscription necessary. As an independent production of Timmerman Report, it will be available here first.

The next episode of The Long Run will feature Katrine Bosley, CEO of Editas Medicine, a drugmaker based on CRISPR-based genome editing technology. In Ep. 3, hear Regeneron Pharmaceuticals chief scientist George Yancopoulos talk passionately about creating a scientific culture that is so productive at creating new medicines that it doesn’t need to resort to price-gouging stunts. Expect a wide range of fascinating people and topics to come over time.

Thanks go out to my excellent collaborators. Pedro Rosado of Headstepper Media was the editor and producer. Music comes from D.A. Wallach. Todd Bennings created the logo. Steve White developed the landing page on TimmermanReport.com.

If you, or someone you know, is interested in sponsoring The Long Run, let’s talk. This will represent a rare opportunity for one, maybe two, sponsors to deeply engage with biotech leaders who will be listening. Email: luke@timmermanreport.com

Don’t miss an episode. Subscribe for free at the links below. Thanks for listening!